Cohesive devices

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Cohesive devices (أدوات الرّبط بَيْنَ الْجُمَلْ)

These words and phrases help to guide your reader through your writing, and to link sentences, paragraphs and sections both forwards and backwards.

Good use of cohesive devices will make what you have written easy to follow. If you do not use then, your style is disjointed and consequently difficult to follow. Your mark could be affected either way.

The list below does not include every word and phrase, but does give you a wide range of commonly used academic linking words.

Be careful, although grouped together, none is totally synonymous. Their position in the sentence can also vary.

Remember also, that the word “and” can be used to connect two short sentences together.

Listing Giving examples Generalising
first, second, third for example in general
first, furthermore, finally for instance generally
to begin, to conclude as follows: on the whole
next that is as a rule
Reinforcement in this case for the most part
also namely in most cases
furthermore in other words usually
moreover Result/consequence Highlighting
what is more so in particular
in addition therefore particularly
besides as a result/consequence especially
above all accordingly mainly
as well (as) consequently Reformulation
in the same way because of this/that in other words
not only … but also thus rather
Similarity hence to put it more simply
equally for this/that reason Expressing an alternative
likewise so that alternatively
similarly in that case rather
correspondingly under these circumstances on the other hand
in the same way Deduction the alternative is
Transition
to new point
then another possibility would be
now, in other words Contrast
as far as x is concerned in that case instead
with regard/reference to otherwise conversely
as for … this implies that … on the contrary
it follows that if so/not in contrast
turning to Stating the obvious in comparison
Summary obviously Concession (something unexpected)
in conclusion clearly however
to conclude naturally even though
in brief of course however much
to summarise as can be expected nevertheless
overall surely still
therefore after all yet

Examples:

CONCESSION
It was a very expensive holiday, the weather was bad and the people were not very friendly. Nevertheless, we would probably go back to the same place.

CONTRAST
The South East of the UK often has the coldest weather in the winter. Conversely, the North West of Scotland frequently has the mildest temperatures.

GENERALISING
On the whole, his speech was well received, despite some complaints from new members.

REINFORCEMENT
Desktop computers are cheaper and more reliable than laptops; furthermore, they are more flexible.

RESULT/CONSEQUENCE
Prices fell by more than 20% last year. As a result, sales increased by 15 per cent.