Cohesive devices (أدوات الرّبط بَيْنَ الْجُمَلْ)
These words and phrases help to guide your reader through your writing, and to link sentences, paragraphs and sections both forwards and backwards.
Good use of cohesive devices will make what you have written easy to follow. If you do not use then, your style is disjointed and consequently difficult to follow. Your mark could be affected either way.
The list below does not include every word and phrase, but does give you a wide range of commonly used academic linking words.
Be careful, although grouped together, none is totally synonymous. Their position in the sentence can also vary.
Remember also, that the word “and” can be used to connect two short sentences together.
|first, second, third||for example||in general|
|first, furthermore, finally||for instance||generally|
|to begin, to conclude||as follows:||on the whole|
|next||that is||as a rule|
|Reinforcement||in this case||for the most part|
|also||namely||in most cases|
|furthermore||in other words||usually|
|what is more||so||in particular|
|besides||as a result/consequence||especially|
|as well (as)||consequently||Reformulation|
|in the same way||because of this/that||in other words|
|not only … but also||thus||rather|
|Similarity||hence||to put it more simply|
|equally||for this/that reason||Expressing an alternative|
|similarly||in that case||rather|
|correspondingly||under these circumstances||on the other hand|
|in the same way||Deduction||the alternative is|
to new point
|then||another possibility would be|
|now,||in other words||Contrast|
|as far as x is concerned||in that case||instead|
|with regard/reference to||otherwise||conversely|
|as for …||this implies that …||on the contrary|
|it follows that||if so/not||in contrast|
|turning to||Stating the obvious||in comparison|
|Summary||obviously||Concession (something unexpected)|
|to conclude||naturally||even though|
|in brief||of course||however much|
|to summarise||as can be expected||nevertheless|
It was a very expensive holiday, the weather was bad and the people were not very friendly. Nevertheless, we would probably go back to the same place.
The South East of the UK often has the coldest weather in the winter. Conversely, the North West of Scotland frequently has the mildest temperatures.
On the whole, his speech was well received, despite some complaints from new members.
Desktop computers are cheaper and more reliable than laptops; furthermore, they are more flexible.
Prices fell by more than 20% last year. As a result, sales increased by 15 per cent.