The language of cause and effect
In reality, causes are reasons (they come first) and effects are results (they come next). However, when we desribe them we can begin with either the cause or the effect. For instance:
Using lots of electricity results in air pollution (such as CO2). Air pollution (such as CO2) results from using too much electricity.
The sun was very bright, because of this, Lucy put on her sunglasses. Lucy put on her sunglasses because the sun was very bright.
Daisy ate lots of chocolate consequently she felt a bit sick. Daisy felt a bit sick as a consequence of eating too much chocolate.
Source: Gulf News (2014, 8 January). Traditional Falaj irrigation system in Al Ain. Remember: press “CC” to turn “Subtitles” on. Duration: 01:09
Aflaj Irrigation Systems
Source: UNESCO (2013, 5 November). Aflaj Irrigation Systems of Oman. Remember: press “CC” to turn “Subtitles” on. Duration: 02:52
Aflaj (traditional irrigation systems)
The ‘falaj’ irrigation system is seen as an engineering achievement. Some alflaj are around 3000 years old. They consist of stone channels aboveground, underground tunnels, and shallowhand dug wells that are a few meters deep. In the most common falaj, gravity pulls the water from the underground tunnels into the open, aboveground stone channels, Finally, it is moved towards the areas that needed to be irrigated like gardens and farms. In the past, this system was not only significant as a method of transporting water, but also allowed for settlements to develop that otherwise would not have survived. They provided permanent water sources used for sustainable agriculture and drinking water.
With regard to the above text, identify any vocabulary that is new to you and locate these words in your dictionary.
Midterm exam: read and write an essay outline (1 hour and 40 minutes)
Use a paper dictionary
This will help you to understand the texts and to paraphrase.
Read the source texts
Bring highlighters pens. Highlight/annotate the information that you need
Organise the information into an outline
– Write in notes (NOT full sentences)
– Paraphrase (write the information in your own words, but keep the same meaning)
– Use bullets / numbering to keep your ideas clear and organised
– Use citations (next to data/statistics, research, expert opinions, defining key terms)
Make sure that you have enough information in your outline
– Complete all five parts of the outline
– Ensure you have enough information in the outline to write a 450-word essay (an average of 90 words per paragraph)
Midterm exam: write the essay (1 hour and 40 minutes)
Use your outline to write a 5-paragraph essay (450+ words):
– Body Paragraphs 1, 2, and 3
Write citations next to information from the texts that give:
– Expert opinions
– Definitions for key terms
You will be graded on:
1. Completing the task(20% of essay grade):
– Answering the entire question
– Using an academic tone
2. Organising your information(20% of essay grade):
– Supporting key points
– Using linking words
– Writing clearly
3. Vocabulary(20% of essay grade):
– Word forms
4. Grammar(20% of essay grade):
– Using different sentence structures (simple, compound, complex)
5. Citations(20% of essay grade):
– Using citations after the correct cited information
– Formatting of citations (AUTHOR, YYYY)
متحمس [adjective] Having or showing strong enjoyment and/or interest in something.
— Khaled was very enthusiastic during his presentation and this is key reason for its sucess. Synonyms: energetic, passionate.
إيماء [noun/verb] verb: ges•ture [noun] A movement of part of the body, especially a hand or the head, to express an idea or meaning.
[verb] To make a gesture.
— Alex made a gesture to say thank-you.
— Alia gestered meaningfully with her hands for everyone in the audience to be quiet. Synonyms: signal, sign, motion, indication, gesticulation, show.
وضعة [noun] verb: pos•ture A position of a person’s body when standing or sitting.
— He stood in a flamboyant posture with his hands on his hips. Synonyms: pose, strike an attitude, attitude, stance, standpoint, point of view, opinion, position, frame of mind.
ترتيل [noun] The rise and fall of the voice in speaking, especially the pitch pattern of a sentence, which distinguishes kinds of sentences or speakers of different language cultures.
— She spoke English with a strong Arabic intonation.
متماسك [noun/verb] [noun] The arrangement of and relations between the parts or elements of something complex; the organising of sentences into paragraphs and, paragraphs into an essay.
[verb] To construct or arrange something according to a plan.
— The two sentences have equivalent structures.
— The programme is structured around exams and projects. Synonyms: Arrange, Compose, Construct, Design, Form, Organise, Order, Shape.
150 years ago, Africa’s savannahs had over a million rhinos. However, relentless hunting by European settlers saw rhino numbers rapidly decline. Poaching also increased sharply during the 1970s and 1980s as demand grew for rhino horn, a prized ingredient in traditional Asian medicines – leaving both species at risk.
Today, the greatest threat facing African rhinos is poaching for the illegal trade in their horns. The number of rhinos poached in South Africa alone has increased from 13 in 2007 to a record 1,215 in 2014. Poaching gangs use increasingly sophisticated methods, including helicopters and night vision equipment to track rhinos, and veterinary drugs to knock them out. This means countries and conservationists need to match this level of technology to be able to tackle the problem, alongside working to reduce demand.
“Stop Wildlife Crime [Rhinos]”
Source: World Wildlife Fund (2013). Stop Wildlife Crime [Rhinos]. Notes: turn on “Substitles/close captions” to read the transcript Duration: 05:42
Problem/Solution/Evaluation subject: Water Resources
Water is a valuable resource becasue every living thing depends on water for its survival. As the human population increases, water use increases; yet (fresh, clean) water is a limited resource. Therfore, water should be used as efficiently as possible.
THE WATER CYCLE:
“Water, our most precious resource”
Source: Robeco Asset Management (2014). Water, our most precious resource. Notes: turn on “Substitles/close captions” to read the transcript Duration: 05:05
It is important to use highlighter pens when annotating source texts. Using a number of colours is advantageous because one can be used for say ‘background information’, another for ’causes’ and another for ‘solutions’.
In addition, paper and pencils are essrntial tools too.
It is important to have headphones so that you can listen to instructional videos at your own pace. This enables you to replay sections of a given video and focus on the pronunciation of key phrases, terms and words.
Dictionaries are far more than translation tools. And yes, online tools are great but nothing is better than a physical dictionary. Dictionaries such as “Oxford Wordpower” are highly recommended as they provide clear English definitions and Arabic translations as well as examples and associated words. This particular dictionary also highlights the “3,000 most important and useful words to know in English.”
Keep it Simple: Concentrate on your Core Message When planning your presentation, you should always keep in mind what is the key point and purpose of it.
Start Strongly The beginning of your presentation is crucial. You need to grab your audience’s attention at the outset.
Show your Passion and Connect with your Audience It is hard to be relaxed and be yourself when you are nervous. But reseqarch shows that the most important thing is to connect with your audience, and the best way to do that is to be passionate.
Focus on your Audience’s Needs Your presentation needs to be built around what your audience is going to get out of the presentation. Make it compelling.
Smile and Make Eye Contact with your Audience This sounds very easy, but body language is one of the most important aspects.
When you write these descriptions consider the following: (1) What is being depicted? (2) The number of things (3), their size, (4) position and (5) colour.
Describe the skyscrapers in the picture below
In your description please try and “round” some of the numbers (e.g. “828m”“just under 830 metres”); compare the years in which they were built (“…the newest”; “…older than…” etc.) and also, mention the location of each of the buildings.
A good descriptive report will have a minimum of three paragraphs: an introduction, one paragraph that describes the differences and one paragraph that describes the similarities and the ways in which the two things are exactly the same.
When you are given feedback on your written work, teachers normally use symbols (رموز) and abbreviations (الاختصارات) such as the red ones below:
By understanding these “error correction codes”, you will become more aware of the common errors/mistakes you make when writing in English. This knowledge can improve your overall English writing abilities.