Academic grammar (style & structure)

EAP APA Glossary Grammar Vocabulary Presentation skills

Grammar point Summary
Style الإنجليزية الرسمية An overview of the key style conventions used when writing English for academic purposes.
Sentences الجمل Sentences are sets of words that are complete in of themselves. They start with a capital letter; end with a full stop or question mark; and contain a verb.
Cohesive devices
(linking words)
أدوات الرّبط بَيْنَ الْجُمَلْ Linking words and phrases (“cohesive devises”) help to guide your reader through your writing, and to link sentences, paragraphs and sections both forwards and backwards.

Examples include: however, moreover, furthermore, in addition, therefore

Punctuation علامات الترقيم Punctuation (. , ; : ‘ ” – ! ?) is used in and between sentences in order to make them understandable and readable.
Apostrophes In English, apostrophes have three uses:
(1) To indicate possession (e.g. Ahmeds pen)
(2) To indicate time and measurement (sometimes)
(3) To form contractions (e.g. we shouldnt say cant).
Articles (ال‎) In English the articles are: the a an and also the “Ø” zero article
Adjectives الـصفات Adjectives (الـصفات) describe nouns (الأسـماء) and pronouns (الضمائر)
Prepositions حروف الجر nouns (or pronouns) to show the noun’s (or the pronoun’s) relationship to another word in the sentence.
Pronouns الضمائر Pronouns are mostly used to replace nouns
I, you, she, he, it, they and we
Me, you, him, her, then and us
its or it’s لها أو ذلك It’s is short for it is or it has. Its is the possessive form of it.
This or That هذا أو ذاك This book is next to me (“close”). That book over there (“far away”).
These or Those هذه أو تلك These students (close to me). Those students (not close to me).
e.g. or i.e. على سبيل المثال أو بعبارة أخرى These abbreviations – e.g. (from the Latin exempli gratia) and i.e. (from the Latin id est) are often confused because both are used to clarify something previously mentioned.
e.g. means “for example”. i.e. means “in other words.”


Hyphen and Dashes

The hyphen ( – ), en dash ( – ), and em dash ( — ) look similar but are of different lengths. They also perform different functions.

Only the hyphen receives a dedicated key on most computer keyboards. The method of inserting the other marks varies based on your word processor.

En dash
Em dash


Pausing Points

Pausing points include the comma, semicolon, and colon.


The general rule is that a sentence ends with only one terminal punctuation mark. There are three options:

Question mark
Exclamation point

Other Points

Angle brackets


This section includes three punctuation marks most commonly used for quotations. All three marks have uses outside of quotations, as well.

Quotation marks